Jordan University of Science and Technology
Surface modification and characterization of Jordanian kaolinite: Application for lead removal from aqueous solutions
Mohammad Al-Harahsheh, Reyad Shawabkeh , Adnan Al-Harahsheh, Khalid Tarawneh , Marwan M. Batiha
Kaolinite clay was tested for removal of lead ions from aqueous solution. This clay was washed with
sulfuric acid solution followed by chemical surface modification using 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane
and sodium hydroxide. XRF results showed that silica to alumina ratio was 2.8:1 for the treated sample
compared to 1.6:1 for the raw one.
XRD analysis displayed different distinct kaolinite and quartz peaks before treatment while kaolinite
peaks were diminished after the treatment. SEM morphology indicated that the raw kaolinite appears as
plate structure with no local pores on the plates. However, after treatment the surface was found to have
micropores.Different adsorption isotherm models were applied to the experimental data and found that
Shawabkeh?Tutunji equation best fit these data adequately. It was also found that chemisorption took
place at the surface of the modified kaolinite with maximum adsorption capacity of 54.35 mg/g.