Jordan University of Science and Technology

The Association Between Maternal Factors and Preadolescent Breakfast Skipping: The Mediating Role of Preadolescent Attitudes Toward Breakfast

Reem A. Ali, PhD, RN,  Nadin M. Abdel Razeq, PhD, RN, Fatmeh A. Alzoubi,
PhD, RN,  Karimeh M. Alnuaimi, PhD, RN

Background: Although skipping breakfast is common among children and adolescents, daily breakfast consumption is a healthy habit that is particularly important in childhood. There is a link between children?s attitudes toward breakfast, breakfast-skipping behaviors, and maternal factors. Evidence demonstrating a clear relationship between maternal factors and preadolescent attitudes and behaviors toward breakfast skipping is scarce. Aims: This study aims to examine the mediation effect of preadolescent attitudes toward breakfast on the associations between maternal involvement (encouragement and control of breakfast eating) and preadolescent breakfast skipping. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted across Jordan in public and private primary schools in 2015. A sample of 1,915 preadolescent students (10?11 years) and their mothers (N = 1,299) was generated through proportional cluster stratification sampling. The interrelationships were examined among the participants? demographics, the number of preadolescent skipped breakfasts during a given week, self-reported attitudes toward breakfast, and perceived maternal encouragement and control of breakfast-eating variables. Results: Analysis revealed that preadolescent attitudes toward breakfast and mothers? involvement in preadolescent breakfast were negatively correlated with preadolescent breakfast skipping. Linear regressions revealed that maternal involvement (i.e., encouragement and control of breakfast eating, and educational attainment levels) was predictive of preadolescent attitudes toward breakfast consumption. Multiple regressions using bootstrapping analysis showed that preadolescent attitudes partially mediated the effect of mothers? control and encouragement of breakfast consumption over preadolescent breakfast-skipping behavior. Linking Evidence to Action: Results suggest that preadolescent attitudes, maternal encouragement, and control of breakfast eating in