Jordan University of Science and Technology

Surface Roughness of Monolithic and Layered Zirconia Restorations at Different Stages of Finishing and Polishing: An In Vitro Study

Khaled Q Al Hamad, Ahmad M Abu Al-Addous, Ahed M Al-Wahadni, Nadim Z Baba, Brian J Goodacre

Purpose: To evaluate surface roughness and topography of different zirconia-based restorations at various steps of finishing and polishing. Materials and methods: Seventy-five zirconia discs were fabricated and divided into 3 layered and 2 monolithic groups: layered conventional (VM9; Vita), layered pressed (PM9; Vita), layered digital (TriLuxe Forte; Vita), opaque monolithic (Ceramill Zi; Amann Girrbach), and translucent monolithic (Zolid FX; Amann Girrbach). Surface roughness testing (Ra, Rz) and scanning electron microscopy were performed at the glazed, unglazed, finished, polished, super-polished, and super-polished with diamond paste steps. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were significant differences in all groups among the different steps (p < 0.001, F = 77.67 for layered conventional; p < 0.001, F = 133.90 for layered pressed; p < 0.001, F = 47.94 for layered digital; p < 0.001, F = 48.05 for zirconia opaque; p < 0.001, F = 43.91 for zirconia translucent). For the layered groups, glazed stage was significantly different from all other steps (p < 0.001). For the layered conventional and digital groups, polishing using diamond paste was not significantly different from the polished and super-polished steps (p = 0.448, p = 0.153), while for the layered pressed group, polishing using diamond paste was not significantly different from the super polished step (p = 0.815). For monolithic groups, there were no significant differences between the polished and super-polished steps (p = 0.957 for zirconia opaque, p = 1.00 for zirconia translucent). Both the diamond paste and super-polished steps showed no significant differences (p = 0.620, p = 0.550) from the glazed surface in the opaque zirconia group. Conclusions: Surface roughness of monolithic and layered zirconia was improved by polishing; however, only opaque zirconia reached the level of surface roughness of the glazed stage. Type of buildup affected the