Jordan University of Science and Technology

Effect of Milling Protocols on Trueness and Precision of Ceramic Crowns

Khaled Q Al Hamad, Rama B Al?Rashdan, Bashar A Al?Rashdan, Nadim Z Baba

Purpose: To investigate the effect of different milling protocols for different ceramic materials on the trueness and precision of milled ceramic crowns. Materials and methods: A definitive impression from a patient requiring a ceramic crown was used to fabricate forty glass ceramic crowns (VITABLOCS mark II, Vita Zahnfabrik) milled with wet, hard milling protocol, and 40 zirconia crowns (inCoris TZI, Dentsply, Sirona) milled with dry, soft milling protocol, using a 5-axis milling machine (inLab MC X5; Dentsply Sirona). Trueness and precision for different crown areas were evaluated with a 3D evaluation software (Geomagic Control X, 3D systems). Statistical analysis was performed between the 2 crown types with independent t-test, and analysis of variances followed by Bonferroni tests among crown areas for each crown. Results: All areas of the glass ceramic crowns had higher trueness than the zirconia crown areas (p < 0.05). Crown areas of each crown type had significantly different trueness values (p < 0.001, F = 175.17 for glass crowns, p < 0.001, F = 35.04 for zirconia crowns). Glass crowns had 3.78 ?m precision, while zirconia crowns had 4.12 ?m precision, with a precision difference range between the 2 types of crowns from 0.32 ?m for the inner surface to 6.5 ?m for the marginal surface. Conclusions: Type of ceramic material and milling protocol affected trueness of the milled crown, with higher trueness for the hardmilled glass crowns than the soft milled zirconia crowns. Soft milled zirconia crowns were generally overmilled in comparison with the reference design and glass crowns. However, glass crowns exhibited more undermilling in thin and deep areas. The crown area affected trueness, with external areas having better trueness than internal areas. The 5-axis milling machine had high precision, which was minimally affected by the ceramic type, milling protocol, or crown area.